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Lesson four oral topic chemical elements


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Lesson four
ORAL TOPIC: “CHEMICAL ELEMENTS”


Grammar:

Pronoun ” it” and its functions. Participle I (Present Participle). Continuous Active and Passive voice


part I
Grammar practice

Table 1

Pronoun “it”


функции

употребление

пример

перевод

Личное местоимение (он, она, оно, его, ему, им, ее, ей, ею).

Вместо неодушевленных существительных в качестве подлежащего или дополнения.

Special branch of chemistry studies carbon compounds. It is called organic chemistry. We study it in the second year.

Специальный раздел химии изучает углеродные соединения. Он называется органической химией. Мы изучаем ее на втором курсе.

Указательное местоимение (это).

Подлежащее утвердительного предложения.

It is pure water in the glass.

Это чистая вода в стакане.

Формальное (служебное) подлежащее в безличных оборотах и неопределенно-личных предложениях

Как вводящее в инфинитивную фразу после оценочных прилагательных.

It is not easy to carry out this experiment.

Этот эксперимент выполнить нелегко.

Как вводящее придаточное предложение после оценочных прилагательных.

It is possible that the reaction will require special conditions.

Возможно, что реакция потребует специальных условий.

Как вводящее придаточное предложение после сказуемого в форме страдательного залога.

It is reported that two million carbon compounds were described in literature.

Сообщается, что 2 миллиона углеродных соединений было описано в литературе.

Эмоционально-усилительная

В конструкции It is (was) … that (who) для выделения любого члена предложения кроме сказуемого.

It was D.I. Mendeleyev who arranged all chemical elements in the table of elements

Именно Д.И. Менделеев расположил все химические элементы в таблице элементов.



Exercise 1.: Read the sentences. Translate them. Define the function of the pronoun" it".

1. Sodium, a silver-coloured metal, is very soft. It is also known that it is a very reactive substance. 2. The river or lake water is a mixture of substances, some dissolved in it, others suspended in it. 3. It is generally recognized that the primeval life forms developed in the waters of the earth. 4. It is necessary to store the buffer solution in a dark place. 5. It was commonly believed that milk contained an acid. 6. To demonstrate coagulation he diluted milk with a little water, brought it to the boiling-point, and to portions of it added various mineral acids. 7. It is recommended to close the glass bottle with glass caps.

Exercise 2. Read the sentences containing the construction it is (was) … that (who) and translate them into Russian.

  1. It was in the second half of the 19th century that chemistry began its rapid growth.

  2. It is in the chemical laboratory that the students learn to carry out different experiments in chemistry.

  3. It is not only animals but also plants that need iron.

  4. It was Peter I who with his decree laid the foundation of pharmacy as a branch of science in Russia.

  5. It is pharmacology that is having so great an effect on medicine today.

  6. It was the Emperor of Holy Rome who separated pharmacy from medicine.

  7. It was the Medical Act of 1540 that permitted practice of medicine by any person having the experience, or knowledge of herbs, roots, or waters.

  8. It was only after gallium, scandium and germanium were discovered and after the properties of a number of elements predicted by Mendeleyev were confirmed that Mendeleyev was recognized as the author of the Periodic Law.



Table 2

PARTICIPLE I


Функции

(functions)

Пример

(example)

Перевод

(translation)

определение (attribute)

The element forming this compound is easily oxydized.

Элемент, образующий это соединение, легко окисляется.

обстоятельство (adverbial modifier) с союзами if, while (with conjunctions if, while)

Distilling water we produce a pure substance.

While boiling the mixture he used special chemical glassware.

Дистиллируя воду, мы производим чистое вещество.

Во время кипячения смеси он пользовался специальной химической посудой.

составная часть глагола сказуемого (part of a predicate) (Continuous Active and Passive voice, Perfect Continuous)

The 5th year students are acquiring now practical skills in preparing medicines at the chemist’s.

Студенты пятого курса приобретают сейчас практические навыки приготовления лекарств в аптеке.


Exercise 3. Read and translate the following word combinations containing Participle I and Participle II

  1. as an attribute:

burning sulfur, drinking water, a mixture placed in a cool place, a very low boiling point of liquid air, a colorless liquid boiling at about 190° C, the chemical elements constituting the matter of the universe, a table consisting of vertical groups, the number of elements discovered, educational establishments training pharmacists, chemists contributing to the development of science, elements introduced by Empedocles, silver-colored metal, scientists discovering new elements and their properties, the lightest gas known, strong acidifying agents, crystallized form, the hardest natural substance known.

  1. as an adverbial modifier:

while carrying out the test, when passing through liquid air, while repeating the operation several times, when heated strongly under certain condition, while making X-ray pictures, when boiled with dilute nitric acid, when mixed with air and oxygen, while preparing the solution.

Exercise 4. Translate the following word combinations with Participle I or Participle II into Russian.

Известные всем факты; взятая ею пробирка; ученые, проводящие эксперимент; Менделеев, располагая элементы в таблице; используемый в фармации опыт; таблица состоящая из вертикальных групп; вещества, встречающиеся на земле; жидкость, закипающая при температуре; используя различные методы; тестируемый раствор; хорошо известный факт.

Exercise 5. Translate the following sentences and define the functions of Participle I.

  1. Solutions of acids have a sour taste and produce a burning feeling when they touch skin.

  2. Oxygen is a highly reactive substance, readily combining with many other elements in the process of oxidation.

  3. Using different methods chemists isolated and identified about six million substances.

  4. In naturally occurring compounds, boron exists as a mixture of two stable isotopes with atomic weights of 10 and 11.

  5. An atom is a basic structural unit of the matter, being the smallest particle of an element that can enter into chemical combination.

  6. While establishing impurities it is necessary to use special methods.

  7. An isotope of a chemical element consists of atoms having the same number of neutrons.

  8. The actual volume of molecules making up the air is only about 1/1000th of the total volume of the gas.

  9. Being one of the lightest metals, beryllium at the same time is remarkably strong, stronger than steel.

  10. While burning, magnesium emits large quantities of ultraviolet rays and heat.



Exercise 6. Insert the forms of the Present or the Past Participle from the verbs given in brackets. Translate the sentences into Russian.

  1. Alcohol is a colorless mobile liquid (to have) characteristic odor.

  2. The gases and vapors (to pass through) the U-tube are collected in a jar over water.

  3. Ethyl alcohol is a colorless liquid and its (to boil) point is 78°C.

  4. In the laboratory work the students used test tubes, (to graduate) glasses and other equipment.

  5. Chromic acid if not (to use) with great care may produce poisoning.

  6. A committee (to consist) of 5 students has been formed to hold the meeting.

  7. Free phosphorus combines directly with many simple substances, (to give) a large amount of heat.

  8. The Periodic Law as (to state) by Mendeleyev is of great importance for science as it allowed to put into one orderly table almost all (to know) chemical elements. It also enabled him to make several suppositions (to prove) later by experiments.

  9. Add 3 ml of hydrochloric acid while (to carry out) the test.


Table 3

CONTINUOuS ACTIVE VOICE


p

r

e

s

e

n

t

I
Now the process of crystallization
Modern chemistry and biology

am working

is taking place

are developing

in the laboratory.

in this test-tube.

very quickly.

p

a

s

t

She


The students

was sitting


were making

in the lecture hall and writing something in her note-book.

their experiments from 12 till 2 p.m.

f

u

t

u

r

e

I
He

shall be waiting
will be preparing

for you in the reading hall.

for his practical lesson in chemistry all day tomorrow.


Time markers:

Present – now, at the present moment, all day long, the whole week (month, year);

Past – at 7 o’clock, at the moment, from 7 till 8 last night, when I came, while, all day long, the whole week (month, year);

Future – at 7 o’clock tomorrow, when I come, while.

Exercise 7. Read and translate the following sentences. Define the tense form of a predicate in each sentence.

1. Ancient men knew and used at least 12 elements. 2. Much new material appears each year in the scientific literature. 3. Pharmacists are working at a number of research projects. 4. Astronomers predict that in 5,000,000,000 years the center of the sun will shrink and become hotter. 5. When the assistant entered the laboratory the students were working at their tables. 6. She is preparing for her practical lesson in organic chemistry that will take place in our chemical laboratory tomorrow. 7. The plants which we use in this test were growing in special conditions. 8. Did you pass all the examinations successfully?

Exercise 8. Combine the following sentences using Present Continuous or Past Continuous.


Model 1:

One student speaks (spoke). The other students listen (listened) to him.

While one student is (was) speaking, the other students are (were) listening to him.




  1. The professor delivers a lecture. The students take notes.

  2. One student reads an article. The other student translates it.

  3. Some students make experiments. The other students record their findings.

  4. Some students take their exams. The other students wait outside.

  5. The students waited for the lecture to begin. The instructor prepared some slides for demonstration.

  6. One student shook the solution before heating it. The other student prepared the burner.

  7. The student put the results of the experiment down. The laboratory assistant checked them carefully.




Model 2:

She left the anatomical theater. Her group mates worked there.

When she left the anatomical theater, her group mates were still working there.




  1. We came into the office. Our colleagues discussed the problem.

  2. The telephone rang. The children had dinner.

  3. You called for my sister. She took a walk with a dog.

  4. My friends visited me. I revised for the exams.

  5. I left the hostel. My room mates cooked dinner.

  6. He arrived at the station. The passengers waited for the train to come.

  7. I left the university. The students of our group took the credit test in chemistry.


Exercise 9. Answer the following questions using the words in brackets.

  1. What music are you listening to? (classical)

  2. For whom are you waiting? (the instructor)

  3. Who is delivering lecture now? (Professor N.)

  4. What magazine were you reading yesterday morning? (popular)

  5. What test will you be doing tomorrow at 9 p.m.? (in chemistry)



Exercise 10. Write questions to these answers as in the Model.


Model:

Who __________? I’m meeting my colleague.

Who are you meeting tonight?




  1. Where __________? My colleague works in the central scientific laboratory.

  2. How __________? Students come to the university clinic by bus.

  3. Which __________? I’m working the night shift tomorrow.

  4. What __________? She is washing the laboratory vessels now.

  5. What time __________? Our classes begin at 8 o’clock.

  6. What __________? I’m going to check the obtained data.

  7. How __________? I’m not feeling well today.



Exercise 11. Choose the correct tense.

  1. When do you/are you going to visit the doctor?

  2. She doesn’t use /isn’t using this method in her practical work.

  3. What are you usually doing/do you usually do when you have temperature?

  4. We were gathering/gathered medicinal plants when it started to rain.

  5. While she was planting/planted roses, her son was playing with the dog.

  6. This time next Friday we will be making a report/will make a report.

  7. Mikhail is working/works in the pathology laboratory at the Regional Hospital.

  8. He enjoys/is enjoying his work though sometimes he is working /works at weekends.



Exercise 12. Read the following sentences about lifestyle changes for the prevention of heart disease. Change each verb to future continuous if you can. If the verb does not take a continuous tense, leave the sentence as it is.

Mind verbs which do not take continuous tens: to know, to understand, to believe, to doubt, to like, to love, to hate, to remember, to seem, to belong, to mean, to want, to wish, to see, to hear, to prefer, to have, etc.

  1. I will live in a healthier way.

  2. I will need some help from my psychiatrist.

  3. I will be on a diet.

  4. I will eat less.

  5. I will lose weight.

  6. I will weigh less.

  7. I will run or walk not less than a kilometer a day.

  8. I will travel as much as possible in the future.

  9. I will take time to relax.

  10. I will be in bed by 11:00 each evening. I will get up an hour earlier in the morning.

  11. I will drink water or juice instead of coffee or alcohol.

  12. I will know my limitations.

  13. I will understand my own emotional needs.

  14. I will continue all my good habits.



Exercise 13. Complete the situation.

    1. Tomorrow when I come to the University I know that my group mates:

      1. будут повторять правила;

      2. будут готовиться к контрольной работе;

      3. будут выполнять тесты в компьютерном классе.

      4. будут слушать лекцию по неорганической химии;

      5. во время перерыва будут разговаривать по мобильному телефону с друзьями;

      6. во время перерыва будут перекусывать (to have a snack) в столовой.



Exercise 14. Open the brackets and put the verb in the proper tense form (Indefinite or Continuous Active voice).

1. A stable balance between acids and bases in the body (to be) essential to life. 2. Much new material (to appear) each year in the scientific literature. 3. Pharmacists (to work) now on a number of research projects. 4. In his first article D.I. Mendeleyev (to point out) the similarities of a number of properties of certain elements and (to change) the order of atomic weights where necessary. 5. The atoms of radioactive elements such as uranium and radium are very unstable; they continuously (to break apart). 6. In the second half of the 19th century, modern botany (to develop) rapidly and (to branch) into many specific fields. 7. If we change the conditions of the experiment the particles (to move) with different kinetic energy.

Key: 1. is: 2. appears: 3. are working: 4. pointed: 5. are breaking: 6. was developing… and branching: 7. will move: 8. will be making.



Table 4

CONTINUOuS PASSIVE VOICE



p

r

e

s

e

n

t

Chemical analyses

New scientific material

are being performed

is being prepared

at the Pharmaceutical faculty during the whole course of study.
in the laboratory of organic chemistry now.

p

a

s

t

The students

The exhibition of economic achievements

were being examined

was being shown


in assistant room all day

long.
in various cities of Belarus.



Exercise 15. Read the sentences and translate them into Russian. Define the Passive voice in each sentence.

  1. Now the volumetric analysis is being carried out in the chemical laboratory.

  2. Yesterday at 6 o’clock the solution was being boiled in the water-heater system.

  3. Tomorrow at 2 o’clock plant constituents will be extracted by water.

  4. When the professor came, the examination cards were being distributed among the students by the assistant.

  5. Yesterday a very important question was being discussed at the seminar.

  6. Chemical laboratories are equipped with different instruments and apparatuses.

  7. Some preparations which were known to primitive men are still used at present in a modified form.

  8. Drug effects will be described after a number of experiments.



Exercise 16. You have just entered the chemical laboratory. The work in the lab is coming to an end. What is being done by the students at their working places? Make up sentences in Present Continuous Passive voice using the following word combinations.

To wash the laboratory glassware, to put away reagents, to close the bottles containing reagents with caps, to put safety glasses in their proper place, to clean and to dry the lab table, to wash hands with running water after work.

Exercise 17. Read the following sentences and rewrite them in Passive voice.

  1. They are cleaning the store room now, it will be ready in a few minutes.

  2. The nurse is sterilizing a new set of instruments.

  3. The assistant was shaking the bottle with manganese solution when the telephone rang.

  4. The students are making notes of the lecture now.

  5. We were carrying on the experiment when the lights went down.

  6. He was learning Latin terms the whole evening.

  7. Tomorrow at 5 o’clock I will be delivering lecture on inorganic chemistry.

  8. Yesterday at 9 o’clock the students were identifying herbs.



Exercise 18. Answer the questions either in Present or Past Continuous Passive voice, using the word combinations in brackets.


Model:

What is going on in the laboratory? (to carry on the experiments).

The experiments are being carried on here.




  1. Why is your friend in hospital right now? (to treat for acute poisoning).

  2. What is going on in the assembly-hall now? (to hold a meeting of the pharmaceutical faculty).

  3. Who is being examined in the classroom? (the second-year pharmacy students).

  4. What was being explained by the teacher when you were late? (new grammar rules).

  5. What is being demonstrated by the lecturer? (a new video film).

  6. What television program was being watched when you entered the room? (a talk-show devoted to the problem of high school reform).

  7. What sort of questions were being discussed when you joined the conversation? (questions concerning general lab safety rules ).

  8. Why is student X. absent? (to examine by the doctor for his burn on the arm).


Exercise 19. Open the brackets and use the proper form of the verb.
NITROGEN
Nitrogen (to play - Present Indefinite Active) a very important role in nature. As a constituent of proteins, it (to find – Present Indefinite Passive) in the body of every plant and animal. Proteins (constitute – Present Indefinite Active) the most important parts of cells, namely, the protoplasm and the nucleus. The wonderful changes which proteins (to undergo – Present Continuous Active) in plant and animal cell form the basis of all vital processes. Thus life is impossible without proteins.

Nitrogen may be prepared: 1) from air by removal of oxygen, 2) from nitrogen compounds. Nitrogen which (to obtain – Present Indefinite Passive) from air is called atmospheric oxygen. Nitrogen obtained from compounds (to call – Present Indefinite Active) chemical nitrogen. Pure nitrogen (to be – Present Indefinite Active) a colourless, odourless gas, very slightly soluble in water. It (to be – Present Indefinite Active) a little lighter than air, the weight of 1 liter is 1,25gr. When nitrogen (to cool – Present Continuous Passive) for a long time under high pressure it (to become – Present Indefinite Active) a liquid which boils at – 195,8 and solidifies into a snow like mass at 210°C. Nitrogen (to be – Present Indefinite Active) an inert element which at ordinary temperature is almost incapable to form compounds. While it (to heat – Present Continuous Passive) it (to combine – Present Continuous Active) quite readily with some metals, such as lithium, magnesium, titanium. Finally, at very high temperature nitrogen (to combine – Present Continuous Active) directly with oxygen and hydrogen.

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