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Методичка Педагогика 2012. Методичні вказівки до практичних занять для студентів III курсів галузі знань 0101 Педагогічна освіта



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МІНІСТЕРСТВО ОСВІТИ І НАУКИ, МОЛОДІ ТА СПОРТУ УКРАЇНИ

КИЇВСЬКИЙ НАЦІОНАЛЬНИЙ УНІВЕРСИТЕТ

ТЕХНОЛОГІЙ ТА ДИЗАЙНУ

Англійська мова

Методичні вказівки до практичних занять

для студентів I-II курсів

галузі знань 0101 «Педагогічна освіта»

КИЇВ КНУТД 2012

Англійська мова: Методичні вказівки до практичних занять для студентів I-II курсів галузі знань 0101 «Педагогічна освіта»/ Упор. К.Б. Кугай – К.: КНУТД, 2012. – 63с. Англ. мовою.

Упорядник: К.Б. Кугай
Відповідальний за випуск завідувач кафедри іноземних мов ф-ту ТЛП

к.ф.н., професор Т.В. Барамикова

Затверджено на засіданні кафедри іноземних мов ф-ту ТЛП

Протокол № __ від __.__. 2012 р.


Unit 1
Topic: Education
TEXT A
I. Read and remember the following words and word-combinations:

wisdom – мудрість, знання

aspiration – прагнення

precept – повчання, правило

to instil love for – прищепити любов до чогось

schooling / formal education – шкільне навчання, освіта

experiences (plural) – знання

deliberately – свідомо

setting – атмосфера

mores – звичаї

conscious approach – свідомий підхід

visuality – мислене уявлення

accessibility – доступність

to stand the test – витримати випробування
II. Read and translate the following text:
Education
The American educator Horace Mann once said: “As an apple is not in any proper sense an apple until it is ripe, so a human being is not in any proper sense a human being until he is educated”. Education is the process, through which people try to pass along to their children their wisdom and their aspirations for a better world. This process begins shortly after birth, as parents seek to train the infant to behave as their culture demands. For instance, they soon teach the child how to turn babbling sounds into language. Through example and precept parents try to instil in the child a love for the values, skills and knowledge that will help their offspring throughout later life. Schooling or formal education consists of experiences that are deliberately planned and utilized to help young people learn, what adults consider important for them to know. Everyone accepts the goal of developing skill in the three “R’s”: reading, writing and arithmetic.

The basic questions in education are:

1. Why teach?

2. What should be taught?

3. What teaching methods should be used?

4. Who should teach?

5. What is the best setting for learning?

6. How long should schooling continue?

A teacher is someone who communicates information or skills so that someone else may learn. Parents are the first teachers. Just by living with their child and sharing their everyday activities with him, they teach him their language, their values, mores and their manners. Information and skills difficult to teach through family living, these are taught in a school by a person, whose special occupation is teaching.

The knowledge of pedagogics contributes to the whole teaching/learning process, by providing the essential pedagogical techniques and classroom procedures: an organization of the items and materials that are being taught. The effective teaching techniques remain an important part in the teacher’s preparation.

It is the teacher’s task to make the teaching/learning process enjoyable, fruitful and creative. The teacher must be sure that materials are at hand to the needs and progress of his pupils. He must have all available information about the common essential learning his students have had in the past and are going to have in the future.

As it was mentioned above, pedagogics is the science, which deals with teaching and education of young people. One branch of pedagogics is didactics, which is primarily concerned with general ways of teaching. Methodology, as compared to didactics, studies specific ways of teaching a definite subject. Thus, it may be considered special didactics. In teaching general principles of didactics are applied: the principle of conscious approach, activity, visuality, accessibility, durability, individualization, novelty and others, which in their turn influence and enrich didactics. Some principles and techniques have stood the test of time and are recognized as standard principles.
III. Answer the questions:

1. What is Horace Mann?

2. How does the process of education start?

3. What is formal education?

4. What does it mean “three R’s”?

5. What does the profession of a teacher imply?

6. What is pedagogics?

7. What branches of pedagogics do you know?

8. What does didactics deal with?

9. What does methodology study?

10. How many general principles of didactics do you know? What are they?
IV. Put the words into the correct order to make a sentence:

1. Education, shortly, the, begins, birth, process, after, of.

2. Someone, information, or, skills, a teacher, who, is, communicates.

3. Which, and, pedagogics, a science, deals with, teaching, is, education.

4. Consists, experiences, education, of, formal.
V. Find the English equivalents for:

знання, мета, лепетати, нащадок, діяльність, правило (принцип), метод, професія, доступний (що є у розпорядженні), розрізнятися, збагачувати,

майстерність, прагнення.
VI. Match the English words with their Ukrainian equivalents:

1) essential a) галузь

2) procedure b) передавати

3) fruitful c) офіційно визнавати

4) branch d) впливати

5) durability e) ефективний

6) novelty f) надійність

7) to influence g) знання

8) experiences h) основний

9) to recognize i) процес, процедура

10) to communicate j) нововведення, інновація
VII. Match the words with their definitions:

1. Pedagogics a) a system of methods and principles for doing smth;

2. Methodology b) a particular method of doing smth;

3. Didactics c) a science intended to teach a moral lesson;

4. Technique d) a profession to teach;

5. Teacher e) knowledge or skill in a particular job or activity, which you have gained because you have done that job or activity for a long time;

6. Experience f) a study and theory of the methods and principles of teaching.
VIII. Translate into English:

1. Дидактика та методика є галузями педагогіки.

2. Батьки – це наші перші вчителі.

3. Викладач повинен зробити процес навчання цікавим та ефективним.

4. Деякі методи викладання витримали випробування часом.

5. Батьки намагаються прищепити дитині любов до знань.
IX. Make up sentences with the terms:

pedagogics, branch, education, to instill, teaching techniques, to communicate, skill, experiences, teacher, schooling, to stand the test, to contribute, principle.
X. How do you understand the saying: “As an apple is not in any proper sense an apple until it is ripe, so a human being is not in any proper sense a human being until he is educated”.
TEXT B
I. Read and remember the following words and word-combinations:

previous – попередній

to meet challenge – справитися з проблемою

self-image – власна репутація

to deal with – займатися чимось, мати справу з чимось

scientific issue – наукове питання, наукові проблеми

to carry out investigation – проводити дослідження

faculty – факультет; викладачі вищого навчального закладу (факультету)

curriculum – курс навчання, навчальний план, програма (ВНЗ)

well-rounded – всебічно розвинутий

supplemented – доповнений

to familiarize – знайомити (з предметом і т. д.)

facilities – можливості, обладнання
II. Read and translate the text using a dictionary:
the meaning of education
Education today is perhaps more important than at any previous time in our history. It helps young people to meet challenges of life and to see the world with greater understanding. Today we depend on science and technology, so everybody should know about it and its contribution to society, understand its potential and limitations.

So, the focus of education is on the learner and the goal is to help each student to get as much knowledge as possible, to become a creative person, to develop a good self-image, when he takes his place in the working world. Studies should help students to understand that dealing with scientific issues is fun, interesting and important to their lives.

The objective of a study programme is to provide good knowledge in science and in a special field of student’s interest. Students learn to carry out and interpret investigations, acquire teaching and technical skills in sciences.

The faculty develops a curriculum that produces a well-rounded student with good training in a chosen area of research.

At higher schools basic material is presented in the form of lectures, supplemented by class discussions, seminars and laboratory exercises. Students work in laboratories to learn various experimental techniques and to become familiarized with instrumentation and other faculty facilities.
III. Make up a plan of the text in the form of questions.
IV. Render the text in a written form.
TEXT C

I. Mind the following words word-combinations:

subject matter – предмет (обговорення, вивчення тощо)

classroom management techniques – методи класного керівництва

objective – завдання, мета

grading policy – основні принципи оцінювання знань; правила атестації

opportunity – можливість

to engage – привертати (увагу), зацікавлювати

to predict – прогнозувати

to gain – здобувати, отримувати

on one’s own – самостійно
II. Listen to the text “What makes a great teacher?” and try to understand it.
III. True/False statements:

1. Nowadays it is not a problem to find a good teacher.

2. It is very important for a teacher to make the whole class work.

3. Great teachers should always enlarge their knowledge.
IV. Answer the questions:

1. What characteristics should a teacher possess?

2. Is it necessary for a teacher to be the master of his subject?

Unit 2
Topic: Learning STRATEGIES
TEXT A
I. Read and remember the following words and word-combinations:

appropriate adjustment – відповідна установка

comparison – порівняння

match – відповідність

sequence – послідовність

sociable – товариський

mismatch / disparity – невідповідність

similarity – схожість

drawback – недолік

fault-finding – прискіпливий

antagonistic relationship – ворожі стосунки

“from A to Z” – від початку до кінця; від А до Я

authenticity – автентичність, достовірність

constructed / created reference – вигадане посилання, приклад

kinetic – кінетичний, рухливий
II. Read and translate the following text:
Learning STRATEGIES
To provide a student with a great number of learning strategies it is necessary to teach in a variety of styles. But obviously, even a super-teacher cannot present information in every style. The key is to learn to recognize the strategy as quickly as possible, so that you can make the appropriate individual adjustments necessary for success. It makes sense to teach your students how to learn and how to develop their own learning strategies, so they can teach themselves. Here are some additional learning strategies:

Comparison/Match

Many students learn by finding sameness that is they ask themselves what certain things have in common. For example, by looking at four cars or rugs, having the same red-green-red colour sequence. This student is often more sociable because he finds similarities between himself and friends very easily.

Contrast/Mismatch

Other students learn by finding differences. They discover things about the world by finding disparities, drawbacks and what is unusual. This student is often criticized for being negative or fault-finding when, in fact, he is using his primary learning strategy. As you might guess, this student socializes less or has more antagonistic relationships. Treat this student with respect. His ability to find what is different about something is both useful and necessary to his learning.

Process-oriented

This student is interested in how things work, why we are doing this and how we got “from A to Z”. He is less time oriented, more interested in how people communicate and in maintaining relationships in his class. This student likes explanations of why you are doing things and enjoys personal stories.

Results-oriented

This orientation is bottom line. This student wants to know the end of the story first, the final score, the conclusion. In your class, give the answer first and then explain how you got it.

Prove It to Me First”

These students require not only the logical facts and numbers, but also want to know who else has done it. In your class, be methodical and set a personal example to reach the students using this line of thinking.

Authenticity

Many students cannot learn effectively with the constructed or created references (“imagine this”, “for instance” or “let’s pretend that”). They need real-life references and examples. Others can learn quite easily with their constructed references to reality. It can be a very successful learning strategy. Be sure to offer both of these in your class.

Movement and Games

Movement and activity are natural features of childhood, and learning flows naturally from them. Activity and development become increasingly linked, and a young child needs exposure to many different activities to help stimulate the intellect. Movement games that teach concepts not only provide kinetic stimulation for learners, they also help release the physical energy; because it is often difficult for children to preserve attention during stationary activities.
III. Answer the questions:

1. What are learning strategies necessary for?

2. What learning strategies do you know?

3. Which are the most important to your opinion?

4. Which learning strategies do your teachers use or which did they use at school?
IV. True or false. If false, correct the mistake.

1. The student who finds similarities is not very sociable.

2. Process-oriented students are not interested in what, why and how they learn.

3. Results-oriented students often want to know the end of the story, the conclusion etc.

4. Not all students can learn creating the images in their minds, they need references to reality.

5. Movements and games are not necessary during the learning/teaching process.
V. Match the English words with their Ukrainian equivalents:

1) to prove a) рух

2) bottom line b) дитинство

3) conclusion c) потребувати

4) to provide d) відповідний

5) movement e) доводити

6) stationary f) успішний

7) appropriate g) визначний фактор

8) childhood h) висновок

9) successful i) забезпечувати

10) to require j) нерухомий
VI. Translate the sentences into Ukrainian:

1. Many students learn by finding similarities.

2. Many students cannot learn effectively with the constructed references.

3. Movement and activity are natural features of childhood.

4. Some pupils discover things by finding differences.
VII. Translate the sentences into English:

1. Щоб навчання було успішним, потрібно підібрати відповідну індивідуальну

методику.

2. Студенти цікавляться, як відбувається процес навчання від початку до кінця.

3. Часто учні потребують прикладів з реального життя.

4. Ігри та рухи допомагають зняти фізичну напругу, стимулювати мислення.
VIII. Make up sentences with the terms:

learning strategy, childhood, to develop, similarity, drawback, to maintain relationship, bottom line, successful, activity.
TEXT B
I. Read and remember the following words and word-combinations:

tool of education – інструмент освіти

inexpensive – недорогий

user-friendly technology – зручна (для користувача) технологія

distance student – студент дистанційної форми навчання

to expand – поширювати(ся); розширяти(ся)

rural community – сільський населений пункт

workplace productivity – продуктивність на робочому місці

gain – користь

impact – вплив

to be equipped with electronic workstation – бути забезпеченим автоматизованим робочим місцем

to emerge – з’являтися

advancement – прогрес, розвиток

flexibility – гнучкість

to accommodate – забезпечувати; пристосовувати

to hinder – заважати
II. Read and translate the text using a dictionary:
Technology in the Classroom
The primary components of education are changing. The Internet and video-conferencing are emerging as primary tools of education. As the potential of inexpensive, user-friendly technology increases and the platform of available information expands, classroom design increasingly depends on technical standards.

Students’ access and learning processes also are affected. The newest participants are distance students and students in rural communities, as access can be gained from nearly anywhere at any time. In addition to classroom design, technology affects user needs as well, including social interaction and workplace productivity.

However, students in the classroom are also finding gain. The primary impact in the classroom is on how students receive information and, therefore, learn. Increasingly, lecture information is transferred electronically to students. And, in some classrooms, students are equipped with electronic workstations.

What does all this mean for classroom design? The whole idea is to view a classroom equipped with the Internet and video-conferencing emerging as primary components of education technology. This has caused planners to rethink classroom design at two broad levels: technological infrastructure and space planning. By incorporating this, a classroom becomes a strategic resource, positioning an institution for changes and advancements in technology. Maximizing flexibility is not only important for planning technological infrastructure, but also it is a primary key for space planning. Creating flexible classrooms means designing spaces with proportions to accommodate a variety of functions, instead of just one specific learning activity that could potentially hinder future possibilities.
III. Make up a plan of the text in the form of questions.
IV. Render the text in a written form.
TEXT C
I. Mind the following words:

approach – підхід

faculty – викладачі ВНЗ

issue – проблема

quiz – серія запитань
II. Listen to the text “Teaching methods” and try to understand it.
III. True/False statements:

1. The lecture method originated in the 14th century.

2. 1450 – is the year of the printing press’ introduction.

3. Many teachers employ a combination of lectures and discussions.
IV. Answer the following questions:

1. What is the oldest teaching method? When did it appear?

2. What does the lecture-discussion approach to teaching represent?

Unit 3
Topic: Pedagogics
TEXT A
I. Read and remember the following words and word-combinations:

to guide – вести, направляти

to deal with – розглядати (питання і т.д.); займатися (проблемою)

upbringing – виховання

slaves’ duty – обов’язок рабів

promenade – прогулянка

antique theology – античне богослов’я

due to – завдяки

Czech educator Jan Amos Komensky – чеський педагог Ян Амос Коменський

widespread definition – поширене визначення

point of view – точка зору

peculiarity – особливість

to perceive – розуміти, усвідомлювати

implementation – виконання

educational process management – організація освітнього (виховного) процесу
II. Read and translate the following text:
Pedagogics
Pedagogics (from Greek – “child” and “to guide”) is a science that deals with younger generations’ teaching and upbringing. Pedagogics got its name from Greek slaves’ duty to accompany aristocrats’ children to school, promenades, etc.

At first, pedagogics existed and developed in the system of antique and medieval philosophy and theology. And just at the beginning of the 17th century, due to English philosopher Francis Bacon, German pedagogue Johannes Sturm pedagogics became a science. Though its real scientific independence is associated with Czech educator Jan Amos Komensky (John Amos Comenius) (1592-1670). In his study “Great didactics” (1633), he worked out the theory and practice of pedagogical activity.

Gradually, the word “pedagogics” appears more generally: to define the art of guiding a child during his life, upbringing, teaching and giving education.

Pedagogics is the science that studies the processes of upbringing, teaching, educating and personality development at all stages of life – that is the most widespread definition of pedagogics nowadays.

There are three points of view upon this concept:

1) pedagogics is an art;

2) pedagogics is a science;

3) pedagogics is an activity system.

Pedagogics has its own object and subject of study. The object of pedagogics as a science is an educational process in all its variety. The subject of pedagogics is the principles of historical upbringing process and peculiarities of pedagogical activity organization for younger generations.

The main tasks of pedagogics as a science are:

- to perceive educational principles in the process of personality formation and development;

- to form means of implementation of theoretical tasks in educational process;

- to computerize the work of a teacher;

- to improve the content of education;

- to make principally new ways of education.

Pedagogics as a science consists of 4 sections:

1) basis of pedagogics;

2) theory of education;

3) theory of upbringing;

4) theory of educational process management.
III. Answer the questions:

1. What is pedagogics?

2. What is the origin of the word “pedagogics”?

3. How did pedagogics develop as a science?

4. What does pedagogics study?

5. What are the subject and object of pedagogics?

6. What are the main tasks of pedagogics as a science?

7. How many sections does pedagogics consist of? What are they?
IV. Continue the sentences using the text:

1. Pedagogics is the science that studies … .

2. Gradually, the word “pedagogics” appears more generally: to define … .

3. The object of pedagogics as a science is … .

4. The subject of pedagogics is … .

5. At first, pedagogics existed and developed … .
V. Match the English words with their Ukrainian equivalents:

1) science a) виховання

2) upbringing b) розвиток

3) to deal with с) навчання

4) teaching d) освіта

5) development e) покоління

6) to define f) виконання

7) education g) наука

8) implementation h) покращувати

9) to improve i) розглядати (питання)

10) demand j) визначати
VI. Find the English equivalents for:

поширений, освітній процес, предмет вивчення, розробити, виховання, розвиток особистості, теоретичне завдання, супроводжувати, вивчати, середньовічний, незалежність, педагог.
VII. Find a synonym:

to work out

a) to act b) to develop c) to use d) to do
widespread

a) extended b) growing c) total d) general
peculiarity

a) difference b) activity c) characteristic d) degree
basis

a) fundamentals b) cause c) task d) knowledge
to perceive

a) to find b) to understand c) to do d) to make
VIII. Translate the sentences:

1. Слово «педагогіка» має грецьке походження.

2. Педагогіка як наука має предмет та об’єкт вивчення.

3. Чеський педагог Я. Коменський розробив теорію і практику педагогіки.

4. Одним з головних завдань педагогіки є покращення змісту освіти.

5. Педагогіка вивчає процеси розвитку особистості.
IX. Make up sentences with the terms:

pedagogics, personality development, to improve, object and subject of study, tasks of pedagogics, science, concept, to work out, to deal with, teaching, upbringing.
TEXT B
I. Read and remember the following words and word-combinations:

purpose – мета

unconscious – несвідомий

behaviour – поведінка

observation – спостереження

BC = Before Christ – до Різдва Христова, до нашої ери

occupation – професія

to encourage – заохочувати

intelligence – розум

be familiar with – опановувати

equally capable – однаково здібні

ethnic background – етнічна належність
II. Read and translate the text using the dictionary:
The purpose of education
Teaching methods have a long history and relate to the questions: “What is the purpose of education?” and “What are the best ways of achieving these purposes?” For much of human history educational method was largely unconscious. It consisted of children, imitating the elders’ behaviour, learning through observation and play.

About 3000 BC, with the advent of writing, education became more conscious with occupations, requiring particular skills and knowledge.

It has been the intent of many educators since then to find specific, interesting ways to encourage students to use their intelligence and to help them to learn.

Komensky wanted all boys and girls to learn. In his work “The World in Pictures” he gave the first vivid, illustrated textbook which contained much that children would be familiar with in everyday life. He used it to teach the academic subjects they needed to know.

Much later, Jean-Jacques Rousseau in his novel “Emile” or “On Education” presented methodology to teach children the elements of science and much more. In this case he perfectly avoided books, saying the world is one’s book.

In the 20th century the philosopher Eli Siegel, who believed that all children are equally capable of learning regardless of ethnic background or social class stated: “The purpose of all education is to like the world through knowing it”.
III. Make up a plan of the text in the form of questions.
IV. Render the text in a written form.
TEXT C
I. Mind the following words:

psychologist – психолог

representative – представник

although – хоча

experience – (життєвий) досвід

ethics – етика, мораль

to consider – розглядати

to encourage – заохочувати

intelligence – розум, інтелект

facilitator – методист, організатор

guide – керівник

to discover – довідуватися; знаходити
II. Listen to the text “John Dewey” and try to understand it.
III. True/False statements:

1. Dewey was one of those who founded functional psychology.

2. John Dewey said that schools and civil society required much attention.

3. According to Dewey a teacher’s task is just to give information.
IV. Answer the questions:

1. What is John Dewey?

2. What is Dewey best known for?

Unit 4
Topic: Pedagogical categories. Pedagogical sciences
TEXT A
I. Read and remember the following words and word-combinations:

purposeful management – цілеспрямоване керівництво

in accordance with – згідно з

society demands – потреби суспільства

interaction – взаємодія

cognitive activity – пізнавальна діяльність

interrelated – взаємопов’язаний

disabled children – діти-інваліди

vocational school – професіонально-технічне училище
II. Read and translate the following text:
Pedagogical categories. Pedagogical sciences
The main categories of pedagogics are upbringing, teaching and education.

Upbringing is the process of purposeful management of personality formation and development in accordance with the society demands.

A general purpose of upbringing is the formation of socially active, well-rounded personality. So, upbringing is:

1) the process that leads to certain changes;

2) the purposeful management of personality development;

3) the interaction of all subjects and objects of pedagogical process;

4) the development activity.

Teaching is the process of purposeful management of a human cognitive activity, during which knowledge, skills, conception of the world are mastered. Teaching is a technology of education.

Education is the process and the result of knowledge abilities and skills’ mastering. All these categories (upbringing, teaching, education) are interrelated.

To pedagogical sciences belong:

1) general pedagogics that studies and forms principles, methods, kinds of teaching and upbringing;

2) age pedagogics: preschool, school, adult:

a) preschool pedagogics is a branch of pedagogical knowledge that studies principles of children’s upbringing in families and preschool educational establishments;

b) secondary school pedagogics is the most developed branch of pedagogical knowledge that deals with the content, forms and methods of pupils’ teaching and upbringing;

3) pedagogics for disabled children studies and works out questions of teaching, upbringing and education of children with different physical defects;

4) branch pedagogics: military, sports, higher school, vocational school.
III. Answer the questions:

1. What are the main categories of pedagogics?

2. What does upbringing deal with?

3. How many purposes of upbringing do you know? Name them.

4. What is teaching?

5. What is education?

6. What pedagogical sciences are there?
IV. Continue the sentences using the text:

1. The main categories of pedagogics are … .

2. The general purpose of upbringing is … .

3. Education is the process and the result … .

4. To pedagogical sciences belong: … .

5. Teaching is … .
V. Match the English words with their Ukrainian equivalents:

1) personality a) розвинутий

2) society b) розуміння

3) purpose c) військовий

4) conception d) суспільство

5) content e) дошкільний

6) developed f) особистість

7) to master g) належати

8) military h) ціль

9) preschool i) оволодівати

10) to belong j) зміст, суть
VI. Find the English equivalents for:

виховання, галузева педагогіка, заклад дошкільної освіти, дорослий, розвиток особистості, пізнавальна діяльність, фізична вада, метод, вивчати, розглядати (питання).
VII. Find a synonym:

category

a) section b) basis c) type d) unit
purpose

a) want b) aim c) point of view d) cost
ability

a) possibility b) chance c) opportunity d) capacity
to belong

a) to go with b) to know c) to be included in d) to look forward
branch

a) knowledge b) subdivision c) part d) way
VIII. Translate the sentences:

1. Виховання є однією з категорій педагогіки.

2. Педагогіка загальноосвітньої школи займається формами та методами навчання і виховання учнів.

3. Під час навчання людина опановує знання.

4. Всі педагогічні категорії взаємопов’язані.

5. Розвиток всебічно розвинутої особистості є загальною метою виховання.
IX. Make up sentences with the terms:

teaching, upbringing, personality development, pedagogical sciences, technology of education, to master skills, interrelated, age pedagogics, to belong, purposeful management.
TEXT B

I. Read and remember the following words and word-combinations:

in modern day usage – в сучасному вжитку

scholarly writing – науковий твір

approach – підхід, точка зору

to propose – пропонувати

to be faced with the challenge – стикатися з проблемою

to embrace – охоплювати

appropriate material – відповідний, доречний матеріал

to make distinction – розрізняти

andragogics – андрагогіка, педагогіка дорослих (розділ педагогіки, що охоплює теоретичні та практичні проблеми виховання, навчання, освіти і самоосвіти дорослих)

instruction – навчання

scribe – писар

the Jesuits – єзуїти

to launch – випускати

reflection – міркування, розмірковування

evaluation – оцінювання

competence – кваліфікація
II. Read and translate the text using the dictionary:
The notion of pedagogics
Pedagogics is the art or science of teaching children. In modern day usage, it is a synonym for “teaching” or “education”, particularly in scholarly writings. Throughout history, educators and philosophers have discussed different pedagogical approaches to education, and numerous theories and techniques have been proposed. Educators use a variety of research and discussion about learning theories to create their personal pedagogics, and are often faced with the challenge of incorporating new technology into their teaching style. Successful education for all depends on teachers being able to embrace both the art and science of pedagogics. They should act as parents who understand the needs, abilities and experiences of their students while also being trained in the best methods of communication and presentation of appropriate materials.

While the term “pedagogics” is often used to mean the art of teaching in general, some prefer to make the distinction between pedagogics (teaching children) and andragogics (teaching adults). The terms “pedagogics” and “andragogics” are also used to describe teacher/subject based instruction and student directed instruction, respectively.

From the very beginning, educators have tried to find interesting ways to bring up intelligent and educated people. The advent of writing about 3000 B.C. resulted in a style of education with specialized occupations requiring particular skills and knowledge: scribes, astronomers and so on.

Since the time the Jesuits opened their first school in 1548, they believed that a high quality education is the best path to meaningful lives of leadership and service. The Jesuits adapted available educational models while developing their own pedagogical methods to become the “schoolmasters of Europe”. This pedagogics, which embodies five key teaching elements: context, experience, reflection, action and evaluation, is the process by which teachers accompany learners in the lifelong aspiration of competence and professionalism. This method aims to support teachers to be the best teachers, motivates students by embodying their learning experience and stresses the social character of both learning and teaching.
III. Make up a plan of the text in the form of questions.
IV. Render the text in a written form.
text c
I. Mind the following words and word-combinations:

are roughly coordinated – приблизно узгоджені

conceptual framework – схематична структура

to pursue – продовжувати

rhetoric – риторика

apprenticeship – навчання
II. Listen to the text “Classical education” and try to understand it.
III. True/ False statements:

1. Primary education teaches children how to learn.
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