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  1. Read and memorize the following words.

        1. assess [ə’ses] v – оценивать;

        2. beware [bı’wεə] v – беречься, остерегаться (обыкн. в imp. с of);

        3. consumer [kən’sju:mə] n – потребитель;

        4. gaper [’geıpə] n – зевака;

        5. issue [’ı∫u:] n – спорный вопрос, предмет спора, разногласие, проблема;

management

результат, исход лечения;

patient compliance вопрос (проблема) соблюдение больным режима и схемы лечения;

        1. legislation [,ledʒıs’leı∫ən] n – закон, законопроект;

        2. mortar [mɔ:tə] n – ступка, ступа; цементный (строительный) раствор;

        3. premise [’premıs] n, pl. – помещение, владение;

        4. requirement [rı’kwaıəmənt] n – 1) требование, необходимое условие; 2) нужда, потребность;

        5. revoke [rı’vəuk] n – отменять, аннулировать (закон, приказ и т.п.);

        6. rod [’rɔd] n – жезл, скипетр;

        7. setting [’setiŋ] n – окружающая обстановка, окружение;

        8. stock [stɔk] – 1) снабжать; 2) иметь в наличии, в продаже;

        9. substandard [‘sΛb’stændəd] a – нестандартный, ниже качества, установленного стандартом;

        10. valid [’vælıd] a – действительный, имеющий силу;

        11. primary health care – первичная медицинская помощь;

        12. emergency [ı’mə:dʒənsı] n – неотложная помощь;

        13. first-aid [’fə:steıd] n – первая помощь, скорая помощь;

        14. disabled [dıs’eıbld] a – искалеченный, поврежденный;

        15. supplement [’sΛplımənt] n – вспомогательное средство.



Abbreviations:

Rx – [recipe] лат., фарм. возьми!

AMA – American Medical Association – Американская медицинская ассоциация;

HIV [human immunodeficiency virus] – вирус иммунодефицита человека;

AIDS [acquired immune deficiency syndrome] – синдром приобретенного иммунодефицита, СПИД;

TPN – total parenteral nutrition – общее парентеральное питание;

NHS – National Health Service – Национальная Служба здравоохранения Великобритании;

GP – [general practitioner] – врач общей практики;

RPSGB – [the Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain] – Королевское фармацевтическое общество Великобритании;

PSNI – [Pharmaceutical Society of Northern Ireland] – Фармацевтическое общество Северной Ирландии;

EU – [European Union] – Европейский Союз;

FDA – [Food and drug Administration] – Комиссия по контролю за качеством пищи и лекарств;

NF – [National Formulary] – Национальная рецептурная книга;

BP – [British Pharmacopeia] – Британская Фармакопея;

U.S.P. – [United States Pharmacopeia] – Фармакопея США;

BPC – [British Pharmaceutical Codex] – Британская фармацевтический сборник;

HEW – [Department of Health Education and Welfare] – Департамент здравоохранения, образования и социального обеспечения;

PD – [Pharmaceutical Directory] – фармацевтический справочник;

PDR – [Physician Desk Reference] – настольный справочник врача;

HF – [Hospital Formulary] – терапевтический справочник;

A.S. of H.P. – [American Society of Hospital Pharmacists] – Американское общество клинических фармацевтов.



  1. Practice the pronounciation of the following words:

China [’t∫aınə], Chinese [’t∫aı’ni:z], Malaysia [mə’leıʒə], Singapore [,sıŋgə’pɔ:], Korea [kɔ(u)’rı:ə], Hygeia [haı’dʒı(ə)], haematology [,hı:mə’tɔlədʒı], emergency [ı’mə:dʒənsı], psychiatry [saı’kaıətrı], neurology [njuə’rɔlədʒı], epilepsy [‘epılepsı], paediatrics [,pi:dı’ætrıks], neonatal [,nı:ɔ’neıtəl], intravenously [,ıntrə’vi:nəslı], homoeopathic [,həumjəu’pæθık].



  1. Read the text “Pharmacy services in the USA” and do the tasks that follow it.


Pharmacy services in the USA


    1. Introduction.

Pharmacy (from the Greek φάρμακον = drug) is a transitional field between health sciences and chemical sciences and a profession charged with ensuring the safe use of medication. Traditionally, pharmacists have compounded and dispensed medications on the orders of physicians. More recently, pharmacy has come to include other services related to patient care including clinical practice, medication review, and drug information. Some of these new pharmaceutical roles are now mandated by law in various legislatures. Pharmacists, therefore, are drug therapy experts, and the primary health professionals who optimize medication management to produce positive health-outcomes. The symbols most commonly associated with pharmacy are the mortar and pestle and the Rx (recipe) character. Pharmacy organizations often employ other elements, such as the Bowl of Hygeia, conical measures, and caduceuses in their logos. Other symbols are common in different countries such as the green Greek cross in France and the United Kingdom, the increasingly-rare Gaper in the Netherlands, and a red stylized letter A in Germany and Austria, Apotheke being the German word for pharmacy.


    1. Separation of prescribing from dispensing

In most jurisdictions (such as the United States), pharmacists are regulated separately from physicians. Specifically, the legislation stipulates that the practice of prescribing must be separated from the practice of dispensing. These jurisdictions also usually specify that only pharmacists may supply scheduled pharmaceuticals to the public, and that pharmacists cannot form business partnerships with physicians or give them “kickback”* payments. However, the American Medical Association (AMA) Code of Ethics provides that physicians may dispense drugs within their office practices as long as there is no patient exploitation and patients have the right to a written prescription that can be filled elsewhere. 7 to 10 percent of American physician practices reportedly dispense drugs on their own.

In other jurisdictions (particularly in Asian countries such as China, Hong Kong, Malaysia, and Singapore), doctors are allowed to dispense drugs themselves and the practice of pharmacy is sometimes integrated with that of the physician, particularly in traditional Chinese medicine.

In Canada it is common for a medical clinic and a pharmacy to be located together and for the ownership in both enterprises to be common, but licensed separately. The reason for the majority rule is the high risk of a conflict of interest. Otherwise, the physician has a financial self-interest in “diagnosing” as many conditions as possible, and in exaggerating their seriousness, because he or she can then sell more medications to the patient. Such self-interest directly conflicts with the patient’s interest in obtaining cost-effective medication and avoiding the unnecessary use of medication that may have side-effects.

A campaign for separation has begun in many countries and has already been successful (like in Korea). As many of the remaining nations move towards separation, resistance and lobbying from dispensing, doctors who have pecuniary* interests may prove a major stumbling block* (e.g. in Malaysia).
“kickback”– амер.жарг. выплата соучастнику части незаконно полученных денег;

pecuniary– денежный;

stumbling block – камень преткновения.


    1. Community* pharmacy

A pharmacy (commonly the chemist in Australia, New Zealand and the UK; or drugstore in North America; or Apothecary, historically) is the place where most pharmacists practice the profession of pharmacy. It is the community* pharmacy where the dichotomy* of the profession exists ―health professionals who are also retailers*. Community pharmacies usually consist of a retail storefront with a dispensary where medications are stored and dispensed. The dispensary is subject to pharmacy legislation; with requirements for storage conditions, compulsory texts, equipment, etc., specified in legislation. Where it was once the case that pharmacists stayed within the dispensary compounding/dispensing medications, there has been an increasing trend towards the use of trained pharmacy technicians while the pharmacist spends more time communicating with patients. All pharmacies are required to have a pharmacist on-duty at all times when open. In many jurisdictions, it is also a requirement that the owner of a pharmacy must be a registered pharmacist (R.Ph.). This latter* requirement has been revoked in many jurisdictions, such that many retailers (including supermarkets and mass merchandisers) now include a pharmacy as a department of their store. Likewise, many pharmacies are now rather grocery store-like in their design. In addition to medicines and prescriptions, many now sell a diverse arrangement of additional household items* such as shampoo, bandages, office supplies, candy, and snack foods.
Communityобщественный;

dichotomy – последовательное деление на две части;

retailers – розничные торговцы;

latter – последний (из двух названных); второй;

household items – товары немедицинского назначения (хозяйственные товары).


    1. Hospital pharmacy

Pharmacies within hospitals differ considerably from community pharmacies. Some pharmacists in hospital pharmacies may have more complex clinical medication management issues whereas pharmacists in community pharmacies often have more complex business and customer relations issues. Because of the complexity of medications including specific indications, effectiveness of treatment regimens, safety of medications (i.e., drug interactions) and patient compliance issues (in the hospital and at home) many pharmacists practicing in hospitals gain more education and training after pharmacy school through a pharmacy practice residency and sometimes followed by another residency in a specific area. Those pharmacists are often referred to as clinical pharmacists and they often specialize in various disciplines of pharmacy. For example, there are pharmacists who specialize in hematology/oncology, HIV/AIDS, infectious disease, critical care*, emergency* medicine, toxicology, nuclear pharmacy, pain management, psychiatry, anticoagulation clinics, herbal medicine, neurology/epilepsy management, pediatrics, neonatal pharmacists and more.

Hospital pharmacies can usually be found within the premises of the hospital. Hospital pharmacies usually stock a large number of medications, including more specialized medications, than would be feasible* in the community setting. Most hospital medications are unit-dose, or a single dose of medicine. Hospital pharmacists and trained pharmacy technicians compound sterile products for patients including total parenteral* nutrition (TRN), and other medications given intravenously. This is a complex process that requires training of personnel, quality assurance* of products, and adequate facilities. Some hospital pharmacies have decided to outsource high risk preparations and some other compounding functions to companies who specialize in compounding.
critical care – обслуживание пациентов в критическом состоянии;

emergency – неотложная помощь;

feasible – выполнимый, возможный;

parenteral – вне пищеварительного тракта;

quality assurance – гарантия качества.


    1. Consultant pharmacy

Consultant pharmacy practice focuses more on medication regimen review (i.e. “cognitive* services”) than on actual dispensing of drugs. Consultant pharmacists most typically work in nursing homes*, but are increasingly branching into other institutions and non-institutional settings. Traditionally consultant pharmacists were usually independent business owners, though in the United States many now work for several large pharmacy management companies (primarily Omnicare, Kindred Healthcare and PharMedica). This trend may be gradually reversing as consultant pharmacists begin to work directly with patients, primarily because many elderly people are now taking numerous medications but continue to live outside of institutional settings. Some community pharmacies employ* consultant pharmacies and/or provide consulting services.
cognitive – познавательный;

nursing homes – частные лечебницы;

employ – предоставлять работу, нанимать.


    1. Internet pharmacy

Since about the year 2000, a growing number of Internet pharmacies have been established worldwide. Many of these pharmacies are similar to community pharmacies, and in fact, many of them are actually operated by brick-and-mortar* community pharmacies that serve consumers online and those that walk in their door. The primary difference is the method by which the medications are requested and received. Some customers consider this to be more convenient and private method rather than traveling to a community drugstore where another customer might overhear about the drugs that they take. Internet pharmacies (also known as Online Pharmacies) are also recommended to some patients by their physicians if they are homebound.

While most Internet pharmacies sell prescription drugs and require a valid* prescription, some Internet pharmacies sell prescription drugs without requiring a prescription. Many customers order drugs from such pharmacies to avoid the “inconvenience”* of visiting a doctor or to obtain medications which their doctors were unwilling to prescribe. However, this practice has been criticized as potentially dangerous, especially by those who feel that only doctors can reliably assess contraindications, risk/benefit ratios, and an individual’s overall suitability for use of a medication. There also have been reports of such pharmacies dispensing substandard products. Of course as history has shown, substandard products can be dispensed by both Internet and Community pharmacies.
brick-and-mortar – из кирпича и бетона;

valid – действительный;

“inconvenience” – неудобство.


    1. The future of pharmacy

In the coming decades, pharmacists are expected to become more integral within the health care system. Rather than simply dispensing medication, pharmacists expect to be paid for their cognitive skills.

This paradigm shift has already commenced in some countries; for instance, pharmacists in Australia receive remuneration* from the Australian Government for conducting comprehensive* Home Medicines Reviews. In the United Kingdom, Pharmacists (and nurses) who undertake additional training are obtaining prescribing rights. In the United States, consultant pharmacists, who traditionally operated primarily in nursing homes, are now expanding into direct consultation with patients, under the banner of “senior care pharmacy”.
remuneration – оплата;

comprehensive – всесторонний.


  1. Give Russian equivalents.

pharmacy legislation; requirements for storage conditions; a registered pharmacist; household items; community pharmacy; complex clinical medication management issues; patient compliance issues, pharmacy legislation, a retail storefront with dispensary; to gain more education and training; to stock a larger range of medications; nursing homes; brick-and-mortar community pharmacies; to require a valid prescription; to undertake additional training; to obtain prescribing rights.



  1. Give English equivalents.

ступка и пестик; стилизованная буква А красного цвета; греческий крест зеленого цвета; отпуск лекарств; техник-фармацевт, владелец аптеки; предметы быта; эффективность режимов лечения; безопасность лекарственных средств; помещение больницы; гарантия качества продукции, соответствующие условия для работы, медицинские препараты высокого риска, медицинские учреждения; заказывать лекарства в интернет-аптеке; аптеки, отпускающие лекарственные препараты, соответствующие стандарту качества; лекарственные препараты ниже качества, установленного стандартом.



  1. Translate from English into Russian.

    1. Where it was once the care that pharmacists stayed within the dispensary compounding/dispensing medications, there has been an increasing trend towards the use of trained pharmacy technicians while the pharmacist spends more time communicating with patients.

    2. Some pharmacists in hospital pharmacies may have complex clinical medication management issues whereas pharmacists in community pharmacies often have more complex business and customer relations issues.

    3. Hospital pharmacies usually stock a larger range of medications, including more specialized medications, than would be feasible in the community setting.

    4. Some hospital pharmacies have decided to outsource high risk preparations and some other compounding functions to companies who specialize in compounding.

    5. This trend may be gradually reversing as consultant pharmacists begin to work directly with patients, primarily because many elderly people are now taking numerous medications but continue to live outside of institutional settings.

    6. Some customers consider this to be more convenient and private method rather than traveling to a community drugstore where another customer might overhear about the drugs that they take.

    7. However, this practice has been criticized as potentially dangerous, especially by those who feel that only doctors can reliably assess contraindications, risk/benefit ratios, and an individual’s overall suitability for use of a medication.



  1. Compile as many sentences as possible.

  1. A pharmacist on duty

  2. A community pharmacist

  3. A hospital pharmacist

  4. A clinical pharmacist

  5. A consultant pharmacist

  6. A trained pharmacy technician

to deal with

to be responsible for

to be in charge of

to specialize in

to focus on

to operate in

to be engaged in

to practise in

  1. various disciplines of pharmacy such as emergency medicine, toxicology, nuclear pharmacy, herbal medicine etc.;

  2. medication regimen review;

  3. dispensing drugs at all times when the community pharmacy is open;

  4. compounding sterile products for hospital patients;

  5. a complex process of compounding specialized medications;

  6. communicating with patients rather than compounding / dispensing medications.



  1. Define the following notions:

      1. a retail storefront with a dispensary;

      2. a trained pharmacy technician;

      3. a registered pharmacist;

      4. household items;

      5. a clinical pharmacist;

      6. a consultant pharmacist;

      7. an Online pharmacy;

      8. a senior care pharmacy.



  1. Answer the following questions.

Introduction

    1. What symbols are most commonly associated with pharmacy?

    2. What other elements are employed by pharmacy organizations?

Separation of prescribing from dispensing

    1. What does the legislation in many countries stipulate regarding the practice of prescribing?

    2. What is the percentage of American physicians who may dispense drugs on their own?

    3. In what countries is the practice of pharmacy integrated with that of the physician?

    4. What conflict of interest may occur in case a medical clinic and pharmacy are located together with a common ownership of both enterprises?

Community pharmacy

    1. What is the name of the place where most pharmacists practise the profession of pharmacy in Great Britain, Australia, New Zealand, the USA, and Germany?

    2. What issues concerning retailing of drugs in community pharmacy are specified in pharmacy legislation?

    3. What is the main requirement to the owner of the pharmacy?

    4. Why are many pharmacies rather grocery store-like in their design?

Hospital pharmacy

    1. What is the main difference between hospital pharmacies and community ones?

    2. Do many pharmacists practising in hospitals gain more education after graduation from pharmacy school?

    3. What disciplines of pharmacy do clinical pharmacists specialize in?

    4. What medications do hospital pharmacies usually stock?

    5. What are hospital pharmacists and trained pharmacy technicians responsible for?

Consultant pharmacy

    1. What does pharmacy practice focus on?

    2. Where do consultant pharmacists most typically work?

    3. Why do some community pharmacies employ consultant pharmacists to provide consulting services?

Internet pharmacy

    1. What is the primary difference between community pharmacy and internet one?

    2. Why do some customers consider internet pharmacy to be more convenient than community pharmacy?

    3. Which practice in internet pharmacy has been criticized as potentially dangerous?


  1. Read the text “Pharmacy services in Great Britain” and specify the following:

        1. The working place for the majority of pharmacy graduates;

        2. The changing role of pharmacists in the community;

        3. The main responsibilities of clinical pharmacist in hospitals;

        4. Spectrum of activities of pharmacists in the pharmaceutical industry.



Pharmacy services in Great Britain


  1. The practice of pharmacy continues to develop and evolve. For increasing numbers of pharmacists, practice comprises or includes managing medicines at a strategic as well as an individual patient level, the management of repeat dispensing systems, supplementary prescribing, monitoring the effects of medicines, and specializations such as independent prescribing, diagnostic testing and running anti-coagulant clinics. Currently, the majority of pharmacy graduates practice their profession in community pharmacies or National Health Service (NHS) hospitals, although, reflecting the evolution of practice, a growing number are employed in general medical practitioner practices (службаврачаобщейпрактики) or by NHS primary care organizations and strategic health authorities. Pharmacists also work in the pharmaceutical industry and universities. Small numbers work in other sectors, applying their knowledge of medicines to a wide range of issues.

  2. In the community, pharmacists are responsible for dispensing prescriptions, counseling patients and responding to their symptoms, health promotion, and medication review. They provide pharmaceutical services to nursing and residential homes and they are widely involved in reducing the harm that drug misusers inflict on themselves and on society, by participating in needle exchange and supervised medicine administration schemes. The widespread use of computer systems in dispensing ensures that medicine interactions, overdoses and incompatibilities (несовместимость) are readily detected; allowing pharmacists more time to give advice to patients and other health care professionals. Many pharmacists are directly involved in making sure that the patient has been prescribed the most appropriate medicine, and that she is motivated, and knows how, to take it.

  3. In hospitals, pharmacists have a clinical appraisal (оценка) function, whilst also ensuring that prescriptions are legal and appropriate for the patient. Additionally, they are a major source of information on medicines, for doctors and nurses. Most hospital pharmacists, acting as clinical pharmacists, are directly involved with patients; they are expected to provide prompt advice to other professionals and to develop treatment protocols. They also counsel (даватьсовет, рекомендовать) and educate patients on the best use of their medicines as well as monitoring the effects of their therapy. Some hospital pharmacies have facilities (возможности) for the preparation of special medicines, such as complex cancer treatments, and others have special licenses for the small-scale manufacture of medicines which are not commercially available. Some pharmacists are involved in clinical trials of new medicines, others with the education of nurses, doctors and other health care professionals.

  4. In the pharmaceutical industry, though their numbers are modest, pharmacists have key roles in a broad spectrum of activities, including the formulation of new products, planning and optimization of drug development strategies, advising on regulatory issues, marketing, and the management of scale-up and large scale production of medicines. Pharmacy is one of the three graduate professions eligible (имеющийправо) to obtain the status of a Qualified Person for the oversight (надзор) of the manufacture of pharmaceutical products within the European Union.

  5. A small proportion of the profession work in veterinary pharmacy, which has a specialist knowledge and skills base.

  6. The breadth and multi-disciplinary character of the pharmacy degree, along with the ever-changing nature of pharmaceutical services, places pharmacists in a pivotal (основной, решающий) role for research into the discovery, characterization, formulation, administration and therapeutic activity of medicines. In conjunction with this, pharmacists play a leading role in research into the safe and economically responsible use of medicines in practice. Most of this research is undertaken in universities, the pharmaceutical industry and increasingly within the NHS and professional body, the Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain (RPSGB).

  7. All UK pharmacy degree courses are of four years or, in the case of sandwich programms, which include the pre-registration year, five years duration and lead to a Master of Pharmacy classified honours award.

  8. All degree courses which lead, after pre-registration training and passing a registration examination, to qualification as a pharmacist in Great Britain are accredited by the RPSGB, and in Northern Ireland by the RPSGB and the Pharmaceutical Society of Northern Ireland (PSNI). The regulations for the accreditation of pharmacy degrees are made under the Pharmacy Act 1954 and are now, in part, also governed by EU directive 85/432/EEC and recommendations of the EU Advisory Committee on Pharmaceutical Training.



  1. Read and translate “Your guide to our pharmacy. Speak about one of the pharmacies of “Super drug pharmacy chain”.


Superdrug
pharmacy
Your guide to our pharmacy
Opening hours


Monday - Friday

8.00am - 7.00pm

Saturday

8.30am - 6.30pm

Sunday

11.00am - 5.00pm


Unit 11 Piccadilly Gardens,

Manchester, M1 1LY

0161 819 1427
Full pharmacy service

You may have noticed that your local Superdrug now offers a full pharmacy service. Your friendly Superdrug staff has now been joined by a pharmacist to service your prescription needs and offer advice about medicines and health matters.
Prescriptions

If you have a prescription (NHS or private) simply visit the new pharmacy counter. If you need your prescribed medicine in a hurry, please tell the pharmacist as soon as you arrive so that you may be served straight away. If you have any questions about your treatment, please do not hesitate to ask.
Computerized medication records

To take full advantage of this new service, you are invited to join our computerized medication records scheme. This will enable us to provide a fast and efficient service that is particularly useful if you require repeat prescriptions. The pharmacist can also use your records to give advice when purchasing over-the-counter remedies.
Help and advice

Our new service includes more than just dispensing medicines. You can expect sympathetic and confidential advice about your prescription and any medical related problems you may be experiencing. Some common complaints can often be treated with medicines which we stock behind the counter. Our pharmacist will recommend a suitable choice or you may be advised to see your doctor. We are able to supply a variety of medical supplies such as stoma and incontinence products – please ask our staff for details.
Pregnancy

We offer a fast and confidential pregnancy testing service. We shall be pleased to provide advice at any stage of pregnancy and continue to help mothers and young babies with all matters concerning health, hygiene and nutrition.
Clear your medicine cabinet

Old or unwanted medicines should be disposed of safely. Simply bring them to us and we destroy them for you free of charge. At all times, remember to keep medicines out of the reach of children, preferably in a locked medicine cabinet.
Emergencies

If you urgently require a prescription medicine which has been previously prescribed your doctor, and you cannot see your doctor, then we may be able to help. However we can only do this in cases of genuine emergency and we shall have to charge the full price of medicines dispensed. This service is not available on the NHS. If you need medicines in an emergency when Superdrug is closed you should contact your local police who can arrange for a pharmacist to be called out.
Customer service

We offer an informal in-house procedure to deal with any problems or concerns you may have about the services we provide. This is completely confidential. Our aim is to give you the highest possible standard of service and we try to deal swiftly with any problems that may occur. If you are dissatisfied with any aspect of our service please speak to our store manager or pharmacist who will be happy to help or alternatively please call our customer service department on 0181 684 7000 extension 5498.



  1. Read and translate without a dictionary.


Types of Hospitals


        • General or Specialized Hospitals. There are over 6,500 hospitals in the United States. The majority of them are “general” hospitals set up to deal with the full range of medical conditions most people require treatment for. But more than 1,000 hospitals specialize in a particular disease or condition (cancer, rehabilitation, psychiatric illness, etc.) or in one type of patient (children, the elderly, etc.).


A general hospital may not be able to offer the very latest specialized treatments for every disorder. So if you have a serious or highly unusual medical problem, you may need a hospital devoted to the care of people with similar conditions. But it is also important to consider that such a hospital may be far from your home and may lack the facilities and staff necessary to treat an unrelated medical complication. When weighing the possibilities with your doctor, discuss what would be best for your condition and if any general hospitals in the area may be able to accommodate you.


        • Teaching or Community Hospitals. Large teaching/research hospitals have a variety of goals. In addition to treating patients, they are training sites for physicians and other health professionals. Teaching institutions are almost always affiliated with a medical school, which means patients have access to highly skilled specialists who teach at the school and are familiar with up-to-the-minute technology.


You shouldn’t, however, automatically select a prestigious teaching hospital as the primary source of hospital care for you and your family. The quality of smaller community hospitals often compares to that found at large teaching facilities, particularly for routine illnesses and surgeries. The sophisticated equipment and specialized treatment at teaching hospitals can be very expensive, and it is not cost-effective to pay for such services unless you can benefit from them. Check with your physician about the appropriateness of a teaching hospital.


        • Nonprofit or For-Profit Hospitals. The important question here is, who owns the hospital? Is it a voluntary, proprietary or government-supported facility? Even though the quality of care varies widely within each of these categories, knowing who owns the hospital may give you some insight into other questions to ask.


A voluntary hospital is a nonprofit community facility operating under religious or other voluntary auspices. Ultimate responsibility for all that takes place at the hospital rests with its board of trustees, generally selected from the community’s business and professional people, who serve without pay. To manage the hospital the trustees appoint a paid administrator.
Proprietary hospitals are commercial establishments. They are profit-making institutions. Of course, working for profit does not necessarily make a hospital bad, any more than being nonprofit ensures quality care. Proprietary hospitals are owned by corporation or, less often, by individuals such as doctors who practice at the hospital. Hospital corporations usually own a chain of institutions located in several states, and they often own nursing homes or other types of health care facilities as well.
Government-supported hospitals, like all tax-supported institution, sometimes have to curtail service when budget are cut. Also, they may not measure up to other hospitals in terms of comfortable accommodations and the availability of private rooms.

Consumer advocates claim for-profit hospitals are more likely to discharge patients before they are ready or fail to perform necessary test or procedures if a patient is not insured or if their insurance won’t cover more time in the hospital. In a study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association, researchers looked at over half a million discharge records of patients hospitalized in the United States in 1987. They found that while uninsured patients were in wore condition than privately insured patients when they entered the hospital, they were discharged sooner. Although the study did not distinguish between for-profit and nonprofit hospitals, it does indicate that the problem does exist. Additionally, in the spring of 2000, a study in the Journal of General Internal Medicine found that patients at for-profit hospitals are two to four times more likely than patients at not-for-profit hospital to complications from surgery or delays in diagnosing and treating an illness. Previous research found death rates 25 percent higher at for-profit hospitals than at teaching hospitals and six to seven percent higher than at non-profit, non-teaching hospitals.



  1. Read and render in English:


Аптеки в Англии
В Англии различают пять основных типов аптек: частновладельческие индивидуальные аптеки, аптеки небольших частных (proprietary) компаний фармацевтов, фирменные аптеки крупных компаний, аптеки кооперативных (cooperative) обществ, больничные аптеки.

В Англии с 1948г. существует Государственная служба здравоохранения. В апреле 2008г. плата за лекарства составила 7 фунтов 10 пенсов.

Государственной службой здравоохранения руководит Министерство здравоохранения (Department of Health) Англии. В состав Министерства входит постоянный фармацевтический консультативный комитет по техническим вопросам. При местных исполнительных советах Государственной службы здравоохранения для руководства аптечной службой имеются фармацевтические комитеты, которые избираются владельцами аптек. Помимо этого, большую роль в деле фармацевтической практики играет фармацевтическое общество Англии, в котором обязательно должны быть зарегистрированы все аптеки и фармацевты. Инспектора этого общества контролируют качество лекарств, перевязочных материалов (dressings) и предметов ухода за больными (health care item), отпускаемых по рецептам Государственной службы здравоохранения, а также следят за выполнением владельцами аптек фармацевтических инструкций и положений.

Контроль над внедрением (introduction) новых лекарственных препаратов в лечебную практику осуществляет комиссия по вопросам безопасности лекарственных средств (FDA). Изготавливать и отпускать лекарства по рецептам должны только фармацевты, которые обязаны иметь высшее фармацевтическое образование и звание Магистр фармации. Лица, не имеющие фармацевтического образования, допускаются в аптеке только к продаже немедицинских товаров.

Больничные аптеки открываются, как правило, только при крупных больницах и обязаны обслуживать, помимо своей больницы, другие прикрепленные к ней больницы. В таких аптеках, обслуживающих группу больниц, помимо основного аптечного персонала (staff), имеется должность так называемого группового фармацевта, в обязанности которого входит организация работы по лекарственному снабжению всех прикрепленных больниц, а также консультировать по вопросам хранения и использования отпущенных лекарств.

АПТЕКИ В ПОЛЬШЕ
Все аптеки в ПНР частные, кроме тех, которые находятся в ведении учебных заведений (teaching pharmacies). Различают аптеки двух категорий. Аптеки I категории занимаются производственной деятельностью (be engaged in filling in prescriptions), ко II категории относятся аптеки готовых форм (ready-made drug). Готовится закон, в соответствии с которым все аптеки Польши должны будут заниматься производством лекарственных средств. Владельцам аптеки может быть только лицо, имеющее высшее фармацевтическое образование и стаж работы (length of service) по специальности не менее 5 лет.

Кроме того, различают аптеки открытые (retail (community pharmacies)), которые осуществляют отпуск медикаментов по амбулаторным рецептам и безрецептурный отпуск санитарно-гигиенических средств, а также больничные, обслуживающие стационары (in-patient departments).

Для выписывания лекарственных средств в Польше существует 3 типа рецептурных бланков:

  1. белого цвета – для отпуска лекарственных средств за полнуюстоимость (fully charged), на льготных условиях (at reduced price) и бесплатно (free of charge);

  2. белого цвета с голубой полоской – для отпуска лекарственных средств хроническим больным (сахарный диабет, бронхиальная астма, онкологические заболевания);

  3. розового цвета – для отпуска наркотических средств.

На рабочем месте магистра (по нашему провизора-технолога) есть компьютер, в который заложены все данные (data-base) по каждому наименованию средств, в том числе страна-производитель и стоимость. Таксировка (assessment of statuary prices) осуществляется либо вручную, либо с помощью компьютера. Большинство рецептов льготные, поэтому они остаются в аптеке. Обязательна упаковка приобретенных в аптеке средств в полиэтиленовую упаковку.

В каждой аптеке есть гомеопатические (homoeopathic) средства ведущих гомеопатических фирм Европы. Производством гомеопатических форм занимается только одна аптека в Познани.

Контроль за деятельностью аптечных учреждений осуществляет независимая государственная инспекция (Independent State Inspection). 1-2 раза в год в каждой аптеке она производит внезапную проверку (sudden cheek-up) (изымает лек. формы на анализ). Так как аптеки частные, контроль финансовой деятельности осуществляет сам владелец.

follow-up activity


  1. Agree or disagree with the following statements.

    1. Pharmacists in many countries are sometimes small-business owners, owing pharmacy in which they practice.

    2. Pharmacists are sometimes referred to as dispensing-chemists.

    3. Many consultant pharmacists do not dispense drugs.

    4. NHS is not free for all patients in the UK.

    5. Some categories of patients are exempt (освобождаются) from paying prescription charge for medicines in England.

    6. A general hospital may be able to offer the very latest specialized treatments for every disorder.

    7. Teaching hospitals serve as training sites for physicians, pharmacists and other health professionals.




  1. Prove that:

  1. Pharmacists are the nation’s experts on medicines.

  2. The pharmacy degree establishes a basis for learning, which continues throughout the pharmacist’s career.

  3. The practice of pharmacy continues to develop and evolve.

  4. In the community pharmacists are responsible not only for dispensing prescriptions.

  5. Hospital pharmacists must have special training and skills.

  6. Internet pharmacy is considered by many of customers to be more convenient and private method of buying medicines.




  1. Discuss the following:

  1. How did you imagine the system of pharmaceutical services abroad before getting acquainted with it? Did your idea coincide with what you have learned?

  2. What new information have you got?

  3. What has surprised or disappointed you or seemed curious, or given you new ideas?

  4. What do you like most from what you’ve learned about pharmaceutical services in the USA and Great Britain?

  5. What did you notice that contrasts with the system of pharmacy service existing in Belarus?

  6. What elements of pharmacy service abroad could be adopted in our country?




  1. Visit Vitebsk Medical University pharmacy and make up the guide to it paying attention to the following:

    1. opening hours;

    2. address;

    3. sale of medicines and dispensing of prescriptions;

    4. stock of medications and health care items;

    5. emergency supplies;

    6. first-aid supplies;

    7. blood sugar monitoring and equipment;

    8. disabled living products;

    9. vitamins and supplements.




  1. Talk with the pharmacists.

Ask them to show the equipment they use to fill the doctor’s prescriptions. If they use computer, perhaps they will show you what computer programms they use. While you are there, find out answers to these questions:

        1. How do the pharmacist fill doctor’s prescriptions?

        2. What medicine safety rules do the pharmacists suggest for home?


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